China-India Brief #54

China India Brief #54

Published Twice a Month
June 24 – July 15, 2015

Centre on Asia and Globalisation
Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy

Guest Column

India’s new trilateral with Australia and Japan: China-centric nuances

by David Scott


A new trilateral format emerged for India in June 2015, as India’s Foreign Secretary Subrahmanyam Jaishankar met in New Delhi with the Japanese Vice Foreign Minister Akitaka Saiki and the Australian Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Peter Varghese. For India, this India-Australia-Japan (IAJ) format represents a further development in the Modi government’s talk of replacing an economics-based ‘Look East’ policy with a firmer ‘Act East’ policy which does not shy away from security power projection. Stronger security cooperation with those two other countries had already been signalled in Modi’s preceding trips to Japan in and Australia in late 2014. For China, this new IAJ trilateral represents a degree of ‘intra-Asia balancing’ by India and a setback to Beijing’s ‘anti-encirclement’ (fan weijiao) strategy of the past decade.

The IAJ is an Indo-Pacific framework spanning the Pacific and Indian Oceans, reflecting the adoption of Indo-Pacific strategic terminology that have become noticeable in recent years in India, Japan, Australia, as well as in Indonesia and the United States. Certainly, India and China are both increasingly operating through Indo-Pacific strategic frameworks. Even though China generally criticises ‘Indo-Pacific’ terminology as being a vehicle for China-containment policies, its own current ‘Maritime Silk Road’ proposals, on which India remains ambivalent, are Indo-Pacific in scope.

While, Indian commentators like Manu Pubby and Devirupa Mitra immediately noted the China-centric undertones of the IAJ trilateral, the Indian government remained silent on its purpose. Other participants gave some indications its scope. In a speech at the Observer Research Foundation, Saiki judged that the IAJ ‘had a full day discussion on China’ on which ‘we confirmed with each other we are on the same page’. Varghese asserted that the IAJ format was not an ‘anti-China front’, but nevertheless confirmed that there was common ‘concern’ with the ‘pace and the scale of China’s reclamation which is causing some anxiety in the region’. This ‘anxiety’ referred to Beijing’s widely-criticised large-scale ‘Great Wall of Sand’ programme during 2015 to build up South China Sea atolls into islands.

One significance of the new IAJ trilateral was that it supplements the existing India-Japan-US (IJUS) trilateral operating since 2007 in the domain of joint naval exercises in the Western Pacific and since 2011 in the field of a formal strategic dialogue mechanism. Chinese commentary has been to dismiss the IJUS as a mechanism to ‘target China’ (Global Times, 30 October 2012). It was no coincidence that Sushma Swaraj’s trip to Japan in January 2015 witnessed agreement to ‘beef up’ IJUS political and military cooperation.

Consequently, the arrival of the IAJ format brings closer the resurrection of the so-called ‘Quadrilateral Alliance’ or ‘Alliance of Democracies’ mechanism that surfaced in 2007. In the face of immediate Chinese protests through a formal ‘demarche’, this quadrilateral mechanism had been quietly dropped by both the Australian and Indian governments then headed by Kevin Rudd and Manmohan Singh respectively. Nevertheless, India has continued to strengthen its bilateral relations with the other three China-concerned actors. Hence the IJUS and now IAJ trilaterals that India joined in with Australia, Japan and the US. On being asked about a future Quadrilateral mechanism his words were carefully chosen. The reply that ‘well not right now’ since ‘we are focussing on trilaterals instead’ leaves the door open in the future, once the trilaterals have deepened. Discussions in November 2014 between Tony Abbot and Modi on Australia joining India in the IJUS trilateral pointed to a quadrilateral re-emergence, which the Times of India (11 November 2014) correctly noted would be ‘certain to set off alarm bells in Beijing’.

China remains keenly attuned to the benefits in gaining more cooperation from India, as well as averting the dangers of India balancing with other neighbours against China. Chinese attitudes to this new IAJ trilateral can be expected to be negative, even if its government avoids direct commenting. Nevertheless, Beijing’s concerns are accurately reflected in how during the Indian general election the populist Global Times (26 March 2014) ran articles on Modi’s ‘China-bashing’, while the official outlet the People’s Daily continued to warning about India balancing with Japan (23 September 2014) and with the United States (30 September 2014; 26 January 2015). China also continues to reject AJUS trilateral criticisms of Chinese actions in the South China Sea (Global Times, 8 October 2013). Other emerging trilateral formations are subject to Chinese criticism; for example US-Australia-Philippines exercises in the South China Sea attacked as highly ‘inappropriate’ in the Global Times (21 April 2015).

Caveats and qualifications need to be made concerning India-China relations. Firstly, there is a degree of India-China cooperation through their RIC trilateral with Russia, in which common global advocacy of multipolarity and tacit restraining of US unipolarity is visible. Secondly, there are some avenues of pragmatic bilateral economic cooperation between India and China, emphasized in Xi Jinping’s visit to India in September 2014 and in Modi’s visit to China in May 2015, although the trade imbalance represented by a growing India-deficit/China-surplus remains unresolved. Nevertheless, such pragmatic economic cooperation between India and China is indicated by India’s decision in June 2015 to formally join the China-led Asia Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB). This is paralleled in some environmental cooperation globally, although water security remains a divisive issue between them regionally.

Thirdly, although India’s two IAJ and IJUS trilaterals involving Japan, Australia and the US officially assert they are not aimed at China, and there are other imperatives for cooperation such as maritime security against piracy; nevertheless there is an unstated but clear message that is China-related, where India and its trilateral partners are particularly concerned with assertive Chinese actions in the South China Sea. As such, the IAJ set up in June 2015 reflects a process whereby India continues to ‘hedge’ against China; through pursuing some engagement with China where it can at the global and economic level, but also pursuing a noticeable degree of soft implicit balancing at the regional and military level against China.


David Scott is an ongoing consultant-analyst and prolific writer (see on India and China foreign policy having retired from teaching at Brunel University in 2015. He can be contacted at .


The views expressed in this article are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy or the National University of Singapore.


News Reports

Bilateral Relations

China opens new land route to Tibet for Indian pilgrims
The New York Times, June 23
The crossing on Monday of Nathu La, a high-altitude pass between Sikkim in India and Chinese-ruled Tibet, signaled the official opening of a new pilgrimage route for Indians to the holy sites of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar, considered sacred by Hindus and Buddhists. China and India recently announced an agreement to allow pilgrims through Nathu La after India had lobbied for the opening for years. Officials reached the agreement to open the pass to pilgrims during President Xi Jinping’s visit to India in September, according to Xinhua, the Chinese state-run news agency.

PM Modi conveys to Xi India’s concerns on China’s action on Lakhvi
Deccan Herald, July 8
Prime Minister Narendra Modi today conveyed India’s strong concerns to President Xi Jinping over China blocking its proposal for action by the UN against Pakistan on the release of jailed Mumbai attack mastermind Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi. During a nearly 90-minute-long meeting between the two leaders ahead of the BRICS and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summits here, Modi also reiterated India’s concerns over the USD 46 billion economic corridor China was building which goes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir(PoK).

Xi calls for joint Chinese-Indian efforts in building stronger BRICS partnership
CCTV, July 9
China and India should work together to build a closer, more comprehensive and firmer partnership among the BRICS countries, Chinese President Xi Jinping said here. Xi made the remarks when meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the southwestern Russian city of Ufa ahead of two multilateral summits. The Chinese president recalled his meeting with Modi in May in the northwestern Chinese city of Xi’an, where the two leaders reached important consensuses on enriching the bilateral strategic partnership and forging a closer partnership of development. The meeting sent positive signals to the two peoples and the international community that the two major developing nations are committed to cooperating for common development, said Xi.

High-profile Tibetan monk dies in China prison
The Times of India, July 14
A Tibetan monk who was one of China’s most prominent political prisoners has died in jail, 13 years into serving a sentence, a relative said on Monday. A rights group said security forces were deployed after protesters gathered near a government office in his home region. The Tibetan government-in-exile, the Central Tibetan Administration, also confirmed his death.

From remote outpost, India looks to check China’s Indian Ocean thrust
Reuters, July 14
One by one, the four Indian warships cruised into a sleepy harbor in the country’s remote Andaman and Nicobar islands, fresh from visiting Southeast Asian capitals and conducting exercises in the disputed South China Sea. The arrival of the warships at Port Blair earlier this month symbolizes how an island chain better known for its beaches and diving is quietly becoming a key plank in New Delhi’s strategy to counter China’s growing naval presence in the Indian Ocean. In interviews in New Delhi and Port Blair, the archipelago’s administrative hub, Indian defense officials outlined plans to transform a modest military base into a strategic listening post with strengthened air force, navy and army capabilities. All agreed the chain’s location was its biggest asset in watching China’s navy.


News Reports

China and India in the Regions

Key legal framework laid for China-initiated AIIB
Xinhua, June 29
Delegates of the 57 prospective founding countries of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) on Monday gathered in Beijing for the agreement signing ceremony, which will lay the legal framework for the China-initiated multilateral institution. The 60-article agreement outlined the financial share of each member, policy making, business and operational systems, and governance structure. The AIIB is designed to finance infrastructure building in Asia. The AIIB will have authorized capital of 100 billion U.S. dollars. Asian countries will contribute up to 75 percent of the total capital and be allocated a share of the quota based on their economic size. China, India and Russia are the three largest shareholders, with a voting share of 26.06 percent, 7.5 percent and 5.92 percent, respectively.

BRICS, SCO set to yield pragmatic results
Global Times, July 7
The BRICS Summit and a meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization held in Russia between Wednesday and Friday are projected to yield pragmatic results including a new development bank and the two organizations will evolve into practical co-operation from mere discussions, experts said. China expected that the BRICS group of emerging economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – will make progress in putting into operation the BRICS New Development Bank and emergency reserve arrangement at the BRICS Summit held in Ufa, Russia from Wednesday to Thursday, Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Cheng Guoping told a press conference. Chinese President Xi Jinping will attend the seventh leaders meeting of the BRICS and the 15th Meeting of the Council of the Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Member States.

India, Pakistan to join security group led by Russia, China
The New York Times, July 10
President Vladimir Putin announced that India and Pakistan will join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, a group dominated by Russia and China and also including former Soviet republics in Central Asia. Russia sees the organization, expanding for the first time since its creation in 2001, as a counterweight to Western alliances. Membership in the group potentially offers India greater access to the energy resources of Central Asia. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has combined his attendance at the summit in Russia with visits to SCO members Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

BRICS countries have closer partnership, broader prospects
People’s Daily Online, July 13
In a commentary, People’s Daily said that the BRICS countries will make greater contributions to world peace and development as long as the bloc continues to deepen cooperation. A closer partnership between the BRICS nations will definitely create broader prospects. The leaders’ meeting mechanism plays the most crucial political leading role in the multilevel and comprehensive cooperation framework between BRICS countries. The 7th BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) summit was held in the southwestern Russian city of Ufa on July 9, 2015. The summit is of great importance for the BRICS nations to join hands in building a closer partnership.

India shuns China, allows Japan in Malabar naval drill
The Times of India, July 13
Cocking a snook at China, India will now include Japan for its forthcoming Malabar naval exercise with the US in the Bay of Bengal in October. But India will host a separate bilateral naval exercise with Australia, which too was keen on joining Malabar, in September.  China had lodged a strong protest against the 2007 Malabar exercise in the Bay of Bengal when they were expanded to include the Japanese, Australian and Singaporean navies as well. China had viewed the multi-lateral exercise as a step towards building a security axis to “contain” it in the Asia-Pacific.


News Reports

Economy and Trade

China’s top legislature reviews BRICS bank agreement
Global Times, June 24
China’s top legislature started reviewing an agreement on the founding of the BRICS New Development Bank (NDB), intended to fund infrastructure in the BRICS bloc and other developing economies, on Wednesday.The agreement was signed by five of the bloc’s members — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — on July 15 last year during the sixth BRICS summit. It will enter force only when all BRICS countries have deposited instruments of acceptance, ratification or approval. The agreement over the Shanghai-based bank had been ratified in India and Russia by April 27, said Vice Finance Minister Shi Yaobin while elaborating on the deal at the bimonthly session of the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee.

Mitsubishi eyes India revival as next driver of commodity cycle
The Japan Times, June 29
While Mitsubishi Corp. is in no rush to add commodity assets, it believes the recovery may lie with India, said Chief Financial Officer Shuma Uchino. If Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government delivers on its ambitious investment plans, India’s infrastructure build-out could replace fading Chinese growth as a driver for markets. “India’s got a bit behind China, but with Modi’s arrival and push to modernize, to cut government inefficiencies, and what with their population size, there’s a lot of potential,” Uchino said in an interview at Tokyo headquarters, adding that he also sees a similar opportunity in Southeast Asia.

Global poverty drops sharply, with China making big strides, U.N. report says
The New York Times, July 6
Dire poverty has dropped sharply, and just as many girls as boys are now enrolled in primary schools around the world. Simple measures like installing bed nets have prevented some six million deaths from malaria. But nearly one billion people still defecate in the open, endangering the health of many others. The sharp reductions in extreme poverty are due largely to the economic strides made by one big country, China. Likewise, some of the biggest shortfalls can be attributed to a handful of countries that remain very far behind. In India, for example, an estimated 600 million people defecate in the open, heightening the risk of serious disease, especially for children. Dire poverty has dropped sharply, and just as many girls as boys are now enrolled in primary schools around the world. Simple measures like installing bed nets have prevented some six million deaths from malaria. But nearly one billion people still defecate in the open, endangering the health of many others.

China troubles not good news for India: Assocham
The Times of India, July 12
Economic troubles in China may have significant impact on India, particularly in sectors like IT and steel, industry body Assocham has warned. While it is true that fall in commodity prices, linked to China’s slow demand, is a positive for India, the development is not all that positive for a host of metal and iron ore producers like SAIL, Tata Steel, NMDC and upstream oil producers, a paper, which analysed the impact of the problems in China on Indian economy, stated. “A sharp fall in iron ore, steel and copper prices has equally hit the Indian manufacturers as any other company in the world. Besides, if a bubble like situation erupts from China, the impact will be seen all around the world to which the Indian economy is too well entrenched into. China is number one merchandise trader in the world with over $4.16 trillion worth of trade, followed by the US with $3.9 trillion,” the paper prepared by Assocham pointed out.

India could overtake China’s growth on government’s policy intervention: India Ratings report
The Economic Times, July 13
India’s economic growth could overtake that of China’s in the current financial year if the Narendra Modi government continues policy intervention, India Ratings said in a research report. According to the report, the main issue marring India’s growth is that of infrastructure deficit, both at the physical and social level. At a time when the Chinese economy is facing trouble, India’s growth could overtake that of China. The Chinese stock market has been quite volatile for some time and saw a dip of about 30 per cent in the last one month before becoming a bit stable in the last two days. The Modi government has been pushing the policy but many in the industry say that it could take time before it would show some results.

China, India are world’s top gold jewellery buyers
Gulf News, July 14
According to the statistics compiled by the World Gold Council, the biggest fans of the precious metal by far are China and India, who scooped up more than 360 tonnes of gold jewellery in the first quarter of 2015. During the same period, Chinese consumers acquired 213.2 tonnes of gold jewellery, which is still the highest in the world although the number is 10 per cent lower than a year earlier. Indians, on the other hand, beefed up their acquisitions of yellow necklaces, earrings, brooches and other shiny adornments and trinkets, with their total gold jewellery demand hitting 150.8 tonnes, a 22 per cent jump from the first quarter last year.

Make in India: Chinese telecom giant Huawei to set up a unit in Tamil Nadu
The Economic Times, July 14
Within two months of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to China during which he had promised an easy investment regime for Chinese companies, the Home Ministry has cleared a 19-month-old proposal from China’s biggest telecom gear maker, Huawei, to set up a unit in Tamil Nadu. MHA cleared the proposal last week after it was submitted way back on December 13, 2103 by Huawei Telecommunications (India) Pvt Ltd for setting up a unit for electronics/telecom hardware and support services including trading and logistics activities at SIPCOT Special Economic Zone, Sriperumbudur in Tamil Nadu. This could now help Huawei to manufacture telecom gear for the first time for the Indian market, a point which was a major concern earlier for Indian security agencies given the possibility of the gear being infected with malware or bugs.


News Reports

Energy and Environment

Softbank plans $20 billion Indian solar power joint venture
The Japan Times, June 23
SoftBank Corp. will tie up with Bharti Enterprises Pvt. and Foxconn Technology Group in a $20 billion solar power venture in India, as the nation seeks to expand clean energy output about fivefold by 2022. The project will aim to add 20 gigawatts of solar generating capacity, SoftBank’s billionaire founder Masayoshi Son said at a briefing in New Delhi on Monday. He spoke alongside Bharti’s Sunil Mittal, who said SoftBank will control the venture, with Bharti and Foxconn having minority stakes.

China’s carbon growth rate in decline: report
Shanghai Daily, July 14
Despite the continued increase in global carbon emissions in China, the growth rate of carbon emissions has been “in a steady decrease” since 2005, and was near zero in 2014, according to a new climate report. The report, commissioned by Britain’s Foreign Office, was written by experts from Britain, China, the U. S. and India. It gives a detailed assessment of the progress made in reducing carbon emissions, and various threats posed by global warming. Several factors have played key roles in bringing down the carbon growth rate in China, including better energy efficiency in major sectors, development of renewable energy, and concern for air pollution, the report said.


Analyses and Commentaries

China’s Indian Ocean strategy
The Japan Times, June 23
Brahma Chellaney asks: what are Chinese attack submarines doing in the Indian Ocean, far from China’s maritime backyard, in what is the furthest deployment of the Chinese Navy in 600 years? Two Chinese subs docked last fall at the new Chinese-built and -owned container terminal in Colombo, Sri Lanka. And recently a Chinese Yuan-class sub showed up at the Pakistani port city of Karachi. The assertive way China has gone about staking its territorial claims in the South and East China seas has obscured its growing interest in the Indian Ocean. This ocean has become the new global center of trade and energy flows, accounting for half the world’s container traffic and 70 percent of its petroleum shipments.

China and India are sitting out refugee crisis
The New York Times, June 28
When a deadly earthquake rocked Nepal in April, China and India rushed to send relief supplies and search-and-rescue teams. But when another humanitarian crisis —boats bearing thousands of migrants — appeared off Southeast Asian shores a month later, Asia’s two most populous countries said and did little. Instead, offers to resettle the migrants came from Gambia and the United States. Their passivity is all the more striking because, halfway around the world, European leaders have been actively debating a response to their own migrant crisis, in which more than 1,700 people from Africa and the Middle East have died trying to cross the Mediterranean this year.

China and Russia: the world’s new superpower axis?
The Guardian, July 7
Forget euro summits and G7 gatherings: for the countries that like to style themselves as the world’s rising powers, the real summitry takes place this week in central Russia, where Vladimir Putin will hold court. Leaders of the Brics countries (Brazil, India, China and South Africa) will meet Putin in Ufa on Wednesday, then make way for the Asian powers grouped in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Russia and China are the common denominators, as in so much geopolitics these days. The UN Security Council, Apec, the G20 – Russia and China are the ever-presents, a powerful pairing whose interests coincide more often than not. Moscow and Beijing have lots in common apart from a 2,500-mile border, economies dominated by state-run firms and oligarchies that can enrich themselves as long as they play by the prevailing political mood of the day. So how robust is the Russia-China axis?

BRICS cooperation helps build new international framework
Global Times, July 13
The 7th BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) summit was held in the Russian city of Ufa on July 8-9. This is the first time the group has come back to Russia after the country hosted the group’s first summit in 2009. Yet compared with the meeting in Yekaterinburg six years ago, the international background of the event has greatly changed, and those changes have prompted a closer partnership among the BRICS countries, writes Liu Zongyi. Currently, given the sluggish economic recovery in Western countries and the revival of a Cold War mind-set in the US, global governance is facing great difficulties, namely a lack of leadership and momentum. Thus, it is hard for them to reach any consensus or agreements. Yet the BRICS countries are jointly promoting reform of the global financial system, hoping to enhance their positions and functions, and maintaining world peace by boosting economic growth through cooperation.

The limits of Chinese soft power
Gulf News, July 13
China has been making major efforts to increase its ability to influence other countries without force or coercion. In 2007, the then president Hu Jintao told the Communist Party that the country needed to increase its soft power. President Xi Jinping repeated the same message last year. They know that, for a country like China, whose growing economic and military power risks scaring its neighbours into forming counterbalancing coalitions, a smart strategy must include efforts to appear less frightening. But their soft-power ambitions still face major obstacles, writes Joseph Nye. The billions of dollars China is spending on its charm offensive have had only a limited return. Polls in North America, Europe, India, and Japan show that opinions about China’s influence are predominantly negative. The country is viewed more positively in Latin America and Africa, where it has no territorial disputes and human-rights concerns are not always high on the public agenda. But even in many countries in those regions, Chinese practices like importing labour for infrastructure projects are unpopular.

The great Tibetan stand-off between China, Dalai Lama
The New Indian Express, July 14
The year 2015 is a significant one for Tibet and China, writes Jayadeva Ranade. The Dalai Lama celebrated his 80th birthday on July 6, 2015. It also marks the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) by the Chinese communist regime. Though the Dalai Lama continues to be in exile, his birthday was celebrated in several places across Tibet and abroad. In India, two central government ministers for the first time attended the function in Dharamsala in their official capacity. In Delhi, three former foreign secretaries spoke at a well-attended symposium on July 4, while the reception on July 6 evening was also attended by two central ministers. Both functions were organised by the Dalai Lama’s Delhi Bureau. In China too, the issues of Tibet and the Dalai Lama have received perceptibly increased attention over the past couple of years.


Books and Journals

HIV / AIDS in China and India: Governing Health Security
Palgrave Macmillan, 2015
HIV/AIDS has been a clear threat to human existence for decades, but it was not until 2000 that this was finally recognized by the global community. This innovative comparative study comes at an opportune time to review the HIV/AIDS policies enacted by the international community in the last fifteen years with a special focus on the two Asian countries most affected by HIV/AIDS, China and India. Both countries are rapidly modernizing in the domestic sphere as they forge and strengthen political, economic, and social ties with the global community. Both also face significant internal constraints as they seek to balance their development needs with a pressing need to protect their respective populations. This book, written by Catherine Yuk-ping Lo, compares the policy approaches taken by China and India, illuminating the challenges they face as they grapple with this intractable disease and identifying best practices for dealing with HIV/AIDS in the developing world and beyond.

China, India and “Maritime Silk Road”: Seeking a Confluence
Maritime Affairs, June 2015
In the coming years, the texture of China–India relations will be a crucial determinant of the geopolitical, economic and security environment of Asia, with a strong impact on the global order. Both countries have lately emerged as major economies, writes Gurpreet S. Khurana. This has led to a dilation of their areas of maritime interest, and thereby a growing China–India interface at sea. This may be accompanied by both opportunities and challenges. Given the dynamism of recent developments, these need to be continually assessed and appraised as inputs for policy making. Among the most significant developments is China’s “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR) initiative. In context of this development, this paper attempts to examine the convergences and divergences between China and India. While the bilateral divergences may continue to persist, the paper attempts to assess whether the two countries could capitalize upon the convergences to seize the opportunities presented by the MSR.

Sovereign States and Surging Water: Brahmaputra River between China and India
FEEM Working Paper, May 2015
The objective of this paper, written by Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra and Keshab Chandra Ratha, is to focus the reaction of both people on the water diversion issue, disastrous ecological consequences and the urgent necessity for having a water treaty between Asian giants. It also examines the hegemonic tendencies of China on Brahmaputra River & exercise of power for economic gains and outcomes. The policies China takes on trans-Boundary Rivers are not symptom of peaceful nature of its rise. In addition, it establishes the fact that sharing of information, ecosystem-friendly policies, thought and mutual understanding will dispel the suspicion and develop trust between two countries, creating an enabling environment for better management of Brahmaputra River.

Policy Making for Renewable Energy in India: Lessons from Wind and Solar Power Sectors
Climate Policy, 2015
This article, written by Ankur Chaudhary, Chetan Krishna and Ambuj Sagar, aims to examine the deployment of wind and solar power in India, paying specific attention to the role of public policy in incentivizing and facilitating this deployment, how these policies have evolved over time, what has shaped this evolution, and what the learning has been over this period. Through this analysis, the intention is to draw out key lessons from India’s experience with deployment policies and programmes in these two sectors and highlight the issues that will need to be given particular consideration in the design of future domestic policies and international cooperation programmes to enhance the move towards climate-compatible development in India. Many of these lessons should also be relevant for other developing countries that are attempting to balance their climate and developmental priorities through the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

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